Jharkhand at a Glance: Overview, History, Facts

Jharkhand is an Indian state which is located in the eastern part of India. The state was created on 15 November 2000, from Bihar.

It borders with Bihar in the north, Uttar Pradesh in the northwest, Chhattisgarh in the west, Odisha in the South, and West Bengal in the east.

The state is also known as the land of forests and is very much rich in natural resources. It is India’s 15th largest state by area with a total extension of 79, 710 km2.

By population, Jharkhand is the 14th largest state in the country. The capital city of Jharkhand is Ranchi and Dumka is its sub-capital.

There is a total of 24 districts that have a total population of 3.3 crores altogether. Hindi is the official language of the people of Jharkhand. It is said that the language of the people of Jharkhand gets changed after every 35 to 50 KMs.

Jharkhand has many hills and waterfalls which make the state a place of tourist center. It has several holy places also as: Parasnath, Baidyanath Dham, Dewri, and Rajrappa.

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Jharkhand at a Glance

State Name Jharkhand
Founded 15 November 2000
Capital Ranchi
Current Chief minister Hemant Soren
First Chief minister Babulal Marandi
Population 3.19 crores
Jharkhand is famous For Uranium, Mica, Bauxite, Granite, and Many other
Largest city Jamshedpur
Districts 24
Governor Ramesh Bais
Rank 15th
Famous fort Palamu Forts
Main Rivers Ganga River
Culture Music Jhumair, Mardana Jhumair
Festivals Sarhul, Tusu Festival, Rath Yatra, Makar Sankranti, Durga Puja, and more
Tattoo Godna
Tourism The ancient Baidyanath Jyotirlinga Temple in Deoghar, Jain temple at Samet Shikharji, Jonha Falls, Netarhat hill station
Website jharkhand.gov.in

History of Jharkhand

Jharkhand at a Glance Overview, History, Facts History of Jharkhand MomentumJharkhand.com

After the Independence of India in 1947, the rulers of princely states went together with the Dominion of India. The then Bihar which comprised Jharkhand now also came together with the Dominion of India.

The proposal for a separate state from Bihar was first made by a student of St. Columbia College Hazaribagh in 1912.

  • Gradually the matter took pace and in the year 1928, a political wing of the Christian Tribal demanded a tribal state in the eastern part of India following which a memorandum was submitted to Simon’s commission.
  • In between several proposals and changes took place to the demand for a separate state. In 1955 Jharkhand Party led by Jaipal Singh Munda submitted a memorandum to the state reorganization committee for a separate Jharkhand state.
  • Unfortunately, the memorandum was rejected due to there being many languages and tribal people were not in majority. It was also rejected primarily because of the negative effects on the economy of Bihar after the separation.
  • Again in 1972, Jharkhand Mukti Morcha under the leadership of Vinod Bihari Mahato, Shibu Soren, and A.K Roy headed the movement for a separate Jharkhand state from Bihar.
  • Later the movement was also joined by Nirmal Mahto who founded ‘The all Jharkhand Students Union’ but got separated from Jharkhand Mukti Morcha because of the difference in opinion.

In 1998 the union government decided to send the bill concerning the formation of the state to the Bihar Legislative Assembly to which the then Chief Minister of Bihar opposed and said that the division of the state would take place over his dead body.

After the last assembly election in the state which resulted in a hung assembly and RJD’s dependence on Congress became phenomenal in forming the government.

The Congress party supported RJD on the precondition that the latter would not pose any hurdle in passing the bill related to the ‘Bihar Reorganization Bill’.

This led to the formation of a separate Jharkhand state comprising the Chota Nagpur division and the Santhal Pargana division of South Bihar.

District in Jharkhand

Jharkhand at a Glance Overview, History, Facts District in Jharkhand MomentumJharkhand.com

There are 24 districts in Jharkhand which are divided into five divisions. These divisions are:

  • Palamu division – It has three districts namely Palamu, Garhwa, and Latehar in the Palamu division. The headquarter of these districts is Medininagar
  • North Chota Nagpur division– It has a total of seven Districts namely Chatra, Hazaribagh, Koderma, Giridih, Ramgarh, Bokaro, and Dhanbad. The headquarter of these districts is Hazaribagh
  • South Chota Nagpur division– this division has a total of five districts namely Lohardaga, Gumla, Simdega, Ranchi, and Khunti. The headquarter of these districts is Ranchi
  • Kolhan division– the Kolhan division has three districts namely West Singhbhum, Saraikela Kharsawan, and East Singhbhum. The headquarter of these districts is Chaibasa.
  • Santhal pragna division – there are six districts in this division: Jamtara, Deoghar, Dumka, Pakur, Godda, and Sahebganj. The headquarter of these districts is Dumka.

All districts in Jharkhand:

  • Bokaro
  • Chatra
  • Deoghar
  • Dhanbad
  • Dumka
  • East Singhbhum
  • Garhwa
  • Giridih
  • Godda
  • Gumla
  • Hazaribag
  • Jamtara
  • Khunti
  • Koderma
  • Latehar
  • Lohardaga
  • Pakur
  • Palamu
  • Ramgarh
  • Ranchi
  • Sahibganj
  • Seraikela-Kharsawan
  • Simdega
  • West Singhbhum

Festivals in Jharkhand

Jharkhand at a Glance Overview, History, Facts Festivals in Jharkhand MomentumJharkhand.com

The beautiful state of Jharkhand is located on the eastern side of the Vindhya hills and on the northern edge of the Deccan.

Blessed with nature and known for its rich and diverse culture, Jharkhand is visited by a large number of tourists every year. Jharkhand is home to a large number of festivals that are celebrated throughout the year.

Known for its rich culture, especially the tribal culture, Jharkhand is home to a number of fairs and festivals that are celebrated throughout the year.

Besides, cattle play a very important role in festivals in Jharkhand. You will see a large cattle fair that involves the sale and purchase of cattle at most of these festivals.


This festival is celebrated during the spring season. It is the worship of a village deity who is considered to be the protector of the tribes. During the spring season when flowers appear, people dance and sing a lot.


This Jharkhand festival associated with cattle is celebrated during Diwali, i.e. in the month of November. During this festival, cattle are washed and worshipped. It is a festival of great fun and excitement.


Holi is also one of the most important festivals of Jharkhand. The spring festival is held in Dhanbad in the Hindu month of Phalgun which is around February or March.


Diwali is another prominent festival in Jharkhand. The celebrations actually start two days before the actual Diwali.

Ram Navami

Ram Navami is a religious festival celebrated with great pomp and show. People observe fasts and prayers and look forward to a very colorful ceremony.


Dussehra is another much-awaited festival that lasts for ten days.


This festival is the worship of Karam devta (God of strength and youth). The Karam festival is held on the 11th day of the month of Bhadra. Factions of villagers go into the jungle and gather wood, flowers, and fruit. This festival features the Baiga, Oraon, Majhwar, and Binjhwar tribes of Jharkhand.

Basant Panchami

Basant Panchami is a popular festival in the state of Jharkhand. This festival welcomes the season of spring. The main attraction of this festival is kite flying.

Chhath Puja

Chhath Puja is one of the most important festivals of Jharkhand. People worship the setting sun with great devotion and sincerity during this festival.

This holiday is celebrated twice a year. Once during the Hindu month of Chaitra which is the month of March and also in the month of November which is the month of Kartik according to the Hindu calendar?

Jityya Bhaiya Dooj

Jityya Bhaiya Dooj is a prominent festival in the state of Jharkhand. The celebration is dedicated to the relationship and love between brothers and sisters.

Makar or Tusu Parab

This festival is usually held in the area between Tama, Raidih, and Bundu in the Jharkhand region. This belt has a great history throughout the Indian independence movement.

TUSU is a harvest festival held in winter on the last day of the month of Poush. Single girls decorate a bamboo/wooden frame with colorful paper and then present it near a mountain river.

Hal Punhya

It is a festival that begins with the fall of winter. 1st day of the month of Magh, known as “Hal Punhya” or “Akhain Jatra” is well considered the beginning of plowing. To represent this auspicious dawn, farmers plow two and a half rounds of their farmland today and also believe it as a lucky figure.

Bhagta Parab

This festival falls during the summer and spring seasons. Among the ethnic people of Jharkhand, Bhagta Parab is best recognized as a reverence for Buddha Baba. Devotees pierce the skin with hooks and are tied to one end of a stretched parallel wooden pole.

The other part of the rod, which is connected to a rope, is pulled around the pole, showing a breathtaking dance. This festival is in vogue in Tamar, Jharkhand.


Rohini is possibly the 1st festival of Jharkhand. It is the festival of seed multiplication in the field. Farmers start spreading seeds from this day, but there is no song or dance like other ethnic festivals, but only a small number of rituals.


Bandana festival is one of the most important festivals during the black month of Kartik. Bandna festival is mainly for animals. Native people are very close to pets and animals. During this festival, people clean, wash, decorate and paint and put ornaments on their bulls and cows.

Jani – Shikaar

This festival is held once every twelve years. Women wear men’s clothes and go hunting in the woods. Jani – Shikaar is held to commemorate the driving out of the Mohammedans by the women of Kurukh in Rohtasgarh who were trying to capture the fort during the Sharhul festival.

Chhath Pooja

Chhath Pooja is a primordial Hindu festival and Vedic festival dedicated to Surya (Sun God), also known as Surja Shashti. Chhath Puja is implemented to show gratitude to God Surya for sustaining life on earth and to appeal for the fulfillment of certain wishes.

Conceived as the god of life – power and energy, the Sun is celebrated during the Chhath festival to promote prosperity, well-being, and development.

Rajrappa Mahotsav

Rajrappa Mahotsava or festival is celebrated every year in the Ramgarh district of Jharkhand. The festival symbolizes faith, confluence, and jubilation.

The place has a temple which is dedicated to Maa Chinnamastika, a headless deity who cut off his own head to appease his anger after killing a lot of demons.

This huge festival is also organized in Rajrappa to promote tourism. Famous artists from different parts of the country come here to perform dance, music, and songs.

Dandiya Nights at Jamshedpur

The steel city of Jamshedpur in Jharkhand experiences another grand celebration during the Navratri festival. Dandiya Nights is one of the biggest events held in the city.

It has been organized by Gujrati Sanatan Samaj with great enthusiasm for many years. The festival will not only see a lot of Dandiya dancing participants but also many famous artists.

Kundri Pratappur

This Mela is held in Pratappur, Chhatra district, Jharkhand. It is one of the cattle fairs that are organized in the Jharkhand district. This fair is organized to understand the importance of farm animals in the life of every person.

The festival is highly celebrated and traders from different areas bring their cattle uniquely dressed in colorful dresses.

Aadi Mahotsava

Aadi Mahotsava is also known as National Tribal Festival and is organized by The Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation.

The festival aims to bring the spirit of the indigenous people closer. It celebrates indigenous craft, cuisine, culture, and commerce.

The festival showcases tribal art, handicrafts, painting, jewelry, fabrics, and many other things. Another attraction of the festival is the tribal music and dance artists and other local artisans who showcase their talents. The festival also features indigenous cuisine with an urban flair.

Tusu Mahotsava

This fair is one of the oldest Mela of indigenous people in Sonari. This annual festival is organized by Jharkhand Ekta Manch and Tusu Mela Samiti at Gopal Maidan to bring together different communities and showcase tribal talent to the people.

It is a great festival that comes during the winter season. Tusu Mahotsava also gathers huge crowds from neighboring states.

People gather in large numbers and carry their idols and chaudals of goddess Tusu. Various kinds of competitions and other festivities and songs are held during this festival.


Dating back to ancient times, this fair is one reason to celebrate the life and happiness of the people of Jharkhand. It is a religious fair where people from all over the state come together to celebrate. Bhadli Mela is organized at the time of Makar Sankranti in Itkhori, Chatra District, Jharkhand.

The attractions of the fair include the worship of gods and goddesses, festive feasts, and dance performances.


This fair dates back to ancient times. This Mela is organized at the highest point of Kolhua Hill. It is a religious fair. There is a shrine of Goddess Kali on the hill and people pay offerings at the temple during this festival. Lots of other attractions pass through the festival of fun and frolic with a religious spirit.


This fair is also one of the cattle fairs in Jharkhand. It takes place every year in the months of September and October. During this fair, people come from different parts of the state to trade their cattle. The environment is full of people who understand the importance of cattle and farm animals in our lives.

Fairs in Jharkhand

Fairs in Jharkhand are varied and are windows to know the socio-religious culture of the tribal population in the state. A visit to these fares will provide first-hand information about the life of people living in Jharkhand. Tribals perform their rituals under sal trees.

Such groves are found either in the village itself or in a nearby forest. They are known as ”Jaher” or ”Sarna sthal”. The indigenous people gather in such a sacred grove and perform ceremonies.

Most fairs are colorful livestock fairs. Some of the famous fairs include

  • Kunda mela at Pratappur
  • Chatra mela organized during Durga puja
  • Lawalong mela which is the largest cattle fair
  • Tutilawa mela in Simaria
  • Belgada mela in Simaria
  • Kundri mela in Chatra
  • Kolhua mela in Hunterganj
  • Bhadli Mela in Itkhori celebrated on Makar Sankranti
  • Rabda Sharif: This is the shrine of Saint Data Faham Khyal Shah at Pratappur and this annual fair is celebrated with great pomp and grandeur.
  • Hal Punhya: This festival begins in the fall of winter on the first day of the month of Magh, which is considered the beginning of plowing. Farmers plow two and a half circles of their land to symbolize this auspicious day.
  • Kundri Mela: Kundri Mela held in Jharkhand is one of the very popular cattle fairs in the state. As a state, fairs, and festivals are not new to Jharkhand. There are many fairs and festivals celebrated in Jharkhand throughout the year almost every season.
  • Kolhaiya Mela: This fair is a cattle fair of 1925 and is held on Magh Basant Panchami day at Chatra.
  • Lawalong Mela: This is cattle fair from 1880.
  • Tutilawa Mela: It is a cattle fair held at Simaria on Phalgun Purnima and dates back to 1935.
  • Sangharo Mela: It is a fair held on Sawan Purnima.
  • Belgada Mela: Dating back to 1920, it is a cattle fair held in Simaria during Baisakh Purnima. Cattle fairs held in different parts of the region help locals from surrounding areas to contract and buy and sell cattle at optimum prices.

How to reach Jharkhand?

Jharkhand is a well-connected state from different parts of India.

By air: Ranchi Airport is the main airport of Jharkhand, flying from an important place in the country. A number of flights connect Ranchi with Kolkata, Patna, Mumbai, and New Delhi.

By train: Ranchi railway station is the main railway station in Jharkhand state. Hazaribagh is another important railway station in Jharkhand. Several express trains connect Ranchi and Hazaribagh with Patna, Kolkata, and other important places in the country.

On the road: The state capital, Ranchi, is located at the junction of National Highways 23 and 33. A good network of roads connects the various places of the states with each other and with the rest of the country. State transport and private buses ply within the state and also to neighboring states like Bihar and West Bengal.

Celebration time

Jharkhand is extremely popular for its culture and various tribal groups. There are many fairs and festivals that are celebrated throughout the year and cattle fairs, in particular, are very popular.

Kundri Fair or Kundri Mela is celebrated every year in the month of October-November. According to the Hindu calendar, it falls on the month of Kartik. The mela has religious significance as it is always observed on Kartik Purnima.

Anyone who likes rich culture would like to visit the state of Jharkhand as there is some kind of celebration going on throughout the year. Above all, the fairs Livestock fairs are very popular among the locals. One of the most famous cattle fairs is the Kolhaiya Mela.

At a cattle fair, one of the most important activities of the fair is the buying and selling of cattle.

The fair has its roots in the 1930s, way before independence and much before Jharkhand was an established state. Until now, the fair is held in the Hindu month of Kartik and mainly on Kartik Purnima.


Hope you like this article and know about Jharkhand fairs and festivals. A number of festivals and fairs are held in Jharkhand along with regular festivals like Holi, Dussehra, Diwali, and Eid which are common in all parts of India. Festivals are an opportunity to pray, meet and greet, socialize and strengthen community bonds.

The holiday has been celebrated since ancient times. No one really knows the religious origins of the festival or how it started.

The huge religious aspect associated with this fair is enough for people to gather and enjoy the joyous festivities. Festivals act as stress relievers and help us balance our emotions.

More positivity naturally reduces negativity. It also provides an opportunity to reduce friction and brings estranged friends and relatives together in a bond of love. Nothing brings people together like festivals.

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